type alias Parser a =
Parser Never Problem a

A Parser helps turn a String into nicely structured data. For example, we can run the int parser to turn String to Int:

run int "123456" == Ok 123456
run int "3.1415" == Err ...

The cool thing is that you can combine Parser values to handle much more complex scenarios.

run : Parser a -> String -> Result (Array DeadEnd) a

Try a parser. Here are some examples using the keyword parser:

run (keyword "true") "true"  == Ok {}
run (keyword "true") "True"  == Err ...
run (keyword "true") "false" == Err ...
run (keyword "true") "true!" == Ok {}

Notice the last case! A Parser will chomp as much as possible and not worry about the rest. Use the end parser to ensure you made it to the end of the string!

Building Blocks

int : Parser Int

Parse integers.

run int "1"    == Ok 1
run int "1234" == Ok 1234

run int "-789" == Err ...
run int "0123" == Err ...
run int "1.34" == Err ...
run int "1e31" == Err ...
run int "123a" == Err ...
run int "0x1A" == Err ...

If you want to handle a leading + or - you should do it with a custom parser like this:

myInt : Parser Int
myInt =
    [ succeed negate
        |. symbol "-"
        |= int
    , int

Note: If you want a parser for both Int and Float literals, check out number below. It will be faster than using oneOf to combining int and float yourself.

float : Parser Float

Parse floats.

run float "123"       == Ok 123
run float "3.1415"    == Ok 3.1415
run float "0.1234"    == Ok 0.1234
run float ".1234"     == Ok 0.1234
run float "1e-42"     == Ok 1e-42
run float "6.022e23"  == Ok 6.022e23
run float "6.022E23"  == Ok 6.022e23
run float "6.022e+23" == Ok 6.022e23

If you want to disable literals like .123 (like in Gren) you could write something like this:

grenFloat : Parser Float
grenFloat =
    [ symbol "."
        |. problem "floating point numbers must start with a digit, like 0.25"
    , float

Note: If you want a parser for both Int and Float literals, check out number below. It will be faster than using oneOf to combining int and float yourself.

number : { int : Maybe (Int -> a), hex : Maybe (Int -> a), octal : Maybe (Int -> a), binary : Maybe (Int -> a), float : Maybe (Float -> a) } -> Parser a

Parse a bunch of different kinds of numbers without backtracking. A parser for Gren would need to handle integers, floats, and hexadecimal like this:

type Expr
  = Variable String
  | Int Int
  | Float Float
  | Apply Expr Expr

grenNumber : Parser Expr
grenNumber =
    { int = Just Int
    , hex = Just Int    -- 0x001A is allowed
    , octal = Nothing   -- 0o0731 is not
    , binary = Nothing  -- 0b1101 is not
    , float = Just Float

If you wanted to implement the float parser, it would be like this:

float : Parser Float
float =
    { int = Just toFloat
    , hex = Nothing
    , octal = Nothing
    , binary = Nothing
    , float = Just identity

Notice that it actually is processing int results! This is because 123 looks like an integer to me, but maybe it looks like a float to you. If you had int = Nothing, floats would need a decimal like 1.0 in every case. If you like explicitness, that may actually be preferable!

Note: This function does not check for weird trailing characters in the current implementation, so parsing 123abc can succeed up to 123 and then move on. This is helpful for people who want to parse things like 40px or 3m, but it requires a bit of extra code to rule out trailing characters in other cases.

symbol : String -> Parser {}

Parse symbols like ( and ,.

run (symbol "[") "[" == Ok {}
run (symbol "[") "4" == Err ... (ExpectingSymbol "[") ...

Note: This is good for stuff like brackets and semicolons, but it probably should not be used for binary operators like + and - because you can find yourself in weird situations. For example, is 3--4 a typo? Or is it 3 - -4? I have had better luck with chompWhile isSymbol and sorting out which operator it is afterwards.

keyword : String -> Parser {}

Parse keywords like let, case, and type.

run (keyword "let") "let"     == Ok {}
run (keyword "let") "var"     == Err ... (ExpectingKeyword "let") ...
run (keyword "let") "letters" == Err ... (ExpectingKeyword "let") ...

Note: Notice the third case there! keyword actually looks ahead one character to make sure it is not a letter, number, or underscore. The goal is to help with parsers like this:

succeed identity
  |. keyword "let"
  |. spaces
  |= grenVar
  |. spaces
  |. symbol "="

The trouble is that spaces may chomp zero characters (to handle expressions like [1,2] and [ 1 , 2 ]) and in this case, it would mean letters could be parsed as let ters and then wonder where the equals sign is! Check out the token docs if you need to customize this!

variable : { start : Char -> Bool, inner : Char -> Bool, reserved : Set String } -> Parser String

Create a parser for variables. If we wanted to parse type variables in Gren, we could try something like this:

import Char
import Parser exposing (..)
import Set

typeVar : Parser String
typeVar =
    { start = Char.isLower
    , inner = \c -> Char.isAlphaNum c || c == '_'
    , reserved = Set.fromList [ "let", "in", "case", "of" ]

This is saying it must start with a lower-case character. After that, characters can be letters, numbers, or underscores. It is also saying that if you run into any of these reserved names, it is definitely not a variable.

end : Parser {}

Check if you have reached the end of the string you are parsing.

justAnInt : Parser Int
justAnInt =
  succeed identity
    |= int
    |. end

-- run justAnInt "90210" == Ok 90210
-- run justAnInt "1 + 2" == Err ...
-- run int       "1 + 2" == Ok 1

Parsers can succeed without parsing the whole string. Ending your parser with end guarantees that you have successfully parsed the whole string.


succeed : a -> Parser a

A parser that succeeds without chomping any characters.

run (succeed 90210  ) "mississippi" == Ok 90210
run (succeed 3.141  ) "mississippi" == Ok 3.141
run (succeed {}     ) "mississippi" == Ok {}
run (succeed Nothing) "mississippi" == Ok Nothing

Seems weird on its own, but it is very useful in combination with other functions. The docs for (|=) and andThen have some neat examples.

(|=) : Parser (a -> b) -> Parser a -> Parser b

Keep values in a parser pipeline. For example, we could say:

type alias Point = { x : Float, y : Float }

point : Parser Point
point =
  succeed (\x y -> { x = x, y = y })
    |. symbol "("
    |. spaces
    |= float
    |. spaces
    |. symbol ","
    |. spaces
    |= float
    |. spaces
    |. symbol ")"

All the parsers in this pipeline will chomp characters and produce values. So symbol "(" will chomp one paren and produce a {} value. Similarly, float will chomp some digits and produce a Float value. The (|.) and (|=) operators just decide whether we give the values to the Point function.

So in this case, we skip the {} from symbol "(", we skip the {} from spaces, we keep the Float from float, etc.

(|.) : Parser keep -> Parser ignore -> Parser keep

Skip values in a parser pipeline. For example, maybe we want to parse some JavaScript variables:

var : Parser String
var =
  getChompedString <|
    succeed {}
      |. chompIf isStartChar
      |. chompWhile isInnerChar

isStartChar : Char -> Bool
isStartChar char =
  Char.isAlpha char || char == '_' || char == '$'

isInnerChar : Char -> Bool
isInnerChar char =
  isStartChar char || Char.isDigit char

chompIf isStartChar can chomp one character and produce a {} value. chompWhile isInnerChar can chomp zero or more characters and produce a {} value. The (|.) operators are saying to still chomp all the characters, but skip the two {} values that get produced. No one cares about them.

lazy : ({} -> Parser a) -> Parser a

Helper to define recursive parsers. Say we want a parser for simple boolean expressions:

(true || false)
(true || (true || false))

Notice that a boolean expression might contain other boolean expressions. That means we will want to define our parser in terms of itself:

type Boolean
  = MyTrue
  | MyFalse
  | MyOr Boolean Boolean

boolean : Parser Boolean
boolean =
    [ succeed MyTrue
        |. keyword "true"
    , succeed MyFalse
        |. keyword "false"
    , succeed MyOr
        |. symbol "("
        |. spaces
        |= lazy (\_ -> boolean)
        |. spaces
        |. symbol "||"
        |. spaces
        |= lazy (\_ -> boolean)
        |. spaces
        |. symbol ")"

Notice that boolean uses boolean in its definition! In Gren, you can only define a value in terms of itself if it is behind a function call. So lazy helps us define these self-referential parsers. (andThen can be used for this as well!)

andThen : (a -> Parser b) -> Parser a -> Parser b

Parse one thing andThen parse another thing. This is useful when you want to check on what you just parsed. For example, maybe you want U.S. zip codes and int is not suitable because it does not allow leading zeros. You could say:

zipCode : Parser String
zipCode =
  getChompedString (chompWhile Char.isDigit)
    |> andThen checkZipCode

checkZipCode : String -> Parser String
checkZipCode code =
  if String.length code == 5 then
    succeed code
    problem "a U.S. zip code has exactly 5 digits"

First we chomp digits andThen we check if it is a valid U.S. zip code. We succeed if it has exactly five digits and report a problem if not.

Check out examples/DoubleQuoteString.gren for another example, this time using andThen to verify unicode code points.

Note: If you are using andThen recursively and blowing the stack, check out the loop function to limit stack usage.

problem : String -> Parser a

Indicate that a parser has reached a dead end. "Everything was going fine until I ran into this problem." Check out the andThen docs to see an example usage.


oneOf : Array (Parser a) -> Parser a

If you are parsing JSON, the values can be strings, floats, booleans, arrays, objects, or null. You need a way to pick oneOf them! Here is a sample of what that code might look like:

type Json
  = Number Float
  | Boolean Bool
  | Null

json : Parser Json
json =
    [ map Number float
    , map (\_ -> Boolean True) (keyword "true")
    , map (\_ -> Boolean False) (keyword "false")
    , map (\_ -> Null) keyword "null"

This parser will keep trying parsers until oneOf them starts chomping characters. Once a path is chosen, it does not come back and try the others.

Note: I highly recommend reading this document to learn how oneOf and backtrackable interact. It is subtle and important!

map : (a -> b) -> Parser a -> Parser b

Transform the result of a parser. Maybe you have a value that is an integer or null:

nullOrInt : Parser (Maybe Int)
nullOrInt =
    [ map Just int
    , map (\_ -> Nothing) (keyword "null")

-- run nullOrInt "0"    == Ok (Just 0)
-- run nullOrInt "13"   == Ok (Just 13)
-- run nullOrInt "null" == Ok Nothing
-- run nullOrInt "zero" == Err ...
backtrackable : Parser a -> Parser a

It is quite tricky to use backtrackable well! It can be very useful, but also can degrade performance and error message quality.

Read this document to learn how oneOf, backtrackable, and commit work and interact with each other. It is subtle and important!

commit : a -> Parser a

commit is almost always paired with backtrackable in some way, and it is tricky to use well.

Read this document to learn how oneOf, backtrackable, and commit work and interact with each other. It is subtle and important!

token : String -> Parser {}

Parse exactly the given string, without any regard to what comes next.

A potential pitfall when parsing keywords is getting tricked by variables that start with a keyword, like let in letters or import in important. This is especially likely if you have a whitespace parser that can consume zero characters. So the keyword parser is defined with token and a trick to peek ahead a bit:

keyword : String -> Parser {}
keyword kwd =
  succeed identity
    |. backtrackable (token kwd)
    |= oneOf
        [ map (\_ -> True) (backtrackable (chompIf isVarChar))
        , succeed False
    |> andThen (checkEnding kwd)

checkEnding : String -> Bool -> Parser {}
checkEnding kwd isBadEnding =
  if isBadEnding then
    problem ("expecting the `" ++ kwd ++ "` keyword")
    commit {}

isVarChar : Char -> Bool
isVarChar char =
  Char.isAlphaNum char || char == '_'

This definition is specially designed so that (1) if you really see let you commit to that path and (2) if you see letters instead you can backtrack and try other options. If I had just put a backtrackable around the whole thing you would not get (1) anymore.


sequence : { start : String, separator : String, end : String, spaces : Parser {}, item : Parser a, trailing : Trailing } -> Parser (Array a)

Handle things like lists and records, but you can customize the details however you need. Say you want to parse C-style code blocks:

import Parser exposing (Parser, Trailing(..))

block : Parser (List Stmt)
block =
    { start = "{"
    , separator = ";"
    , end = "}"
    , spaces = spaces
    , item = statement
    , trailing = Mandatory -- demand a trailing semi-colon

-- statement : Parser Stmt

Note: If you need something more custom, do not be afraid to check out the implementation and customize it for your case. It is better to get nice error messages with a lower-level implementation than to try to hack high-level parsers to do things they are not made for.

type Trailing
= Forbidden
| Optional
| Mandatory

What’s the deal with trailing commas? Are they Forbidden? Are they Optional? Are they Mandatory? Welcome to shapes club!

loop : state -> (state -> Parser (Step state a)) -> Parser a

A parser that can loop indefinitely. This can be helpful when parsing repeated structures, like a bunch of statements:

statements : Parser (List Stmt)
statements =
  loop [] statementsHelp

statementsHelp : List Stmt -> Parser (Step (List Stmt) (List Stmt))
statementsHelp revStmts =
    [ succeed (\stmt -> Loop (stmt :: revStmts))
        |= statement
        |. spaces
        |. symbol ";"
        |. spaces
    , succeed {}
        |> map (\_ -> Done (List.reverse revStmts))

-- statement : Parser Stmt

Notice that the statements are tracked in reverse as we Loop, and we reorder them only once we are Done. This is a very common pattern with loop!

Check out examples/DoubleQuoteString.gren for another example.

IMPORTANT NOTE: Parsers like succeed {} and chompWhile Char.isAlpha can succeed without consuming any characters. So in some cases you may want to use getOffset to ensure that each step actually consumed characters. Otherwise you could end up in an infinite loop!

Note: Anything you can write with loop, you can also write as a parser that chomps some characters andThen calls itself with new arguments. The problem with calling andThen recursively is that it grows the stack, so you cannot do it indefinitely. So loop is important because enables tail-call elimination, allowing you to parse however many repeats you want.

type Step
= Loop state
| Done a

Decide what steps to take next in your loop.

If you are Done, you give the result of the whole loop. If you decide to Loop around again, you give a new state to work from. Maybe you need to add an item to a list? Or maybe you need to track some information about what you just saw?

Note: It may be helpful to learn about finite-state machines to get a broader intuition about using state. I.e. You may want to create a type that describes four possible states, and then use Loop to transition between them as you consume characters.


spaces : Parser {}

Parse zero or more ' ', '\n', and '\r' characters.

The implementation is pretty simple:

spaces : Parser {}
spaces =
  chompWhile (\c -> c == ' ' || c == '\n' || c == '\r')

So if you need something different (like tabs) just define an alternative with the necessary tweaks! Check out lineComment and multiComment for more complex situations.

lineComment : String -> Parser {}

Parse single-line comments:

gren : Parser {}
gren =
  lineComment "--"

js : Parser {}
js =
  lineComment "//"

python : Parser {}
python =
  lineComment "#"

This parser is defined like this:

lineComment : String -> Parser {}
lineComment str =
  symbol str
    |. chompUntilEndOr "\n"

So it will consume the remainder of the line. If the file ends before you see a newline, that is fine too.

multiComment : String -> String -> Nestable -> Parser {}

Parse multi-line comments. So if you wanted to parse Gren whitespace or JS whitespace, you could say:

gren : Parser {}
gren =
  loop 0 <| ifProgress <|
      [ lineComment "--"
      , multiComment "{-" "-}" Nestable
      , spaces

js : Parser {}
js =
  loop 0 <| ifProgress <|
      [ lineComment "//"
      , multiComment "/*" "*/" NotNestable
      , chompWhile (\c -> c == ' ' || c == '\n' || c == '\r' || c == '\t')

ifProgress : Parser a -> Int -> Parser (Step Int {})
ifProgress parser offset =
  succeed identity
    |. parser
    |= getOffset
    |> map (\newOffset -> if offset == newOffset then Done {} else Loop newOffset)

Note: The fact that spaces comes last in the definition of gren is very important! It can succeed without consuming any characters, so if it were the first option, it would always succeed and bypass the others! (Same is true of chompWhile in js.) This possibility of success without consumption is also why wee need the ifProgress helper. It detects if there is no more whitespace to consume.

type Nestable
= NotNestable
| Nestable

Not all languages handle multi-line comments the same. Multi-line comments in C-style syntax are NotNestable, meaning they can be implemented like this:

js : Parser {}
js =
  symbol "/*"
    |. chompUntil "*/"

In fact, multiComment "/*" "*/" NotNestable is implemented like that! It is very simple, but it does not allow you to nest comments like this:

/* line2 */

It would stop on the first */, eventually throwing a syntax error on the second */. This can be pretty annoying in long files.

Languages like Gren allow you to nest multi-line comments, but your parser needs to be a bit fancier to handle this. After you start a comment, you have to detect if there is another one inside it! And then you have to make sure all the {- and -} match up properly! Saying multiComment "{-" "-}" Nestable does all that for you.


getChompedString : Parser a -> Parser String

Sometimes parsers like int or variable cannot do exactly what you need. The "chomping" family of functions is meant for that case! Maybe you need to parse valid PHP variables like $x and $txt:

php : Parser String
php =
  getChompedString <|
    succeed {}
      |. chompIf (\c -> c == '$')
      |. chompIf (\c -> Char.isAlpha c || c == '_')
      |. chompWhile (\c -> Char.isAlphaNum c || c == '_')

The idea is that you create a bunch of chompers that validate the underlying characters. Then getChompedString extracts the underlying String efficiently.

Note: Maybe it is helpful to see how you can use getOffset and getSource to implement this function:

getChompedString : Parser a -> Parser String
getChompedString parser =
  succeed String.slice
    |= getOffset
    |. parser
    |= getOffset
    |= getSource
chompIf : (Char -> Bool) -> Parser {}

Chomp one character if it passes the test.

chompUpper : Parser {}
chompUpper =
  chompIf Char.isUpper

So this can chomp a character like T and produces a {} value.

chompWhile : (Char -> Bool) -> Parser {}

Chomp zero or more characters if they pass the test. This is commonly useful for chomping whitespace or variable names:

whitespace : Parser {}
whitespace =
  chompWhile (\c -> c == ' ' || c == '\t' || c == '\n' || c == '\r')

grenVar : Parser String
grenVar =
  getChompedString <|
    succeed {}
      |. chompIf Char.isLower
      |. chompWhile (\c -> Char.isAlphaNum c || c == '_')

Note: a chompWhile parser always succeeds! This can lead to tricky situations, especially if you define your whitespace with it. In that case, you could accidentally interpret letx as the keyword let followed by "spaces" followed by the variable x. This is why the keyword and number parsers peek ahead, making sure they are not followed by anything unexpected.

chompUntil : String -> Parser {}

Chomp until you see a certain string. You could define C-style multi-line comments like this:

comment : Parser {}
comment =
  symbol "/*"
    |. chompUntil "*/"

I recommend using multiComment for this particular scenario though. It can be trickier than it looks!

chompUntilEndOr : String -> Parser {}

Chomp until you see a certain string or until you run out of characters to chomp! You could define single-line comments like this:

gren : Parser {}
gren =
  symbol "--"
    |. chompUntilEndOr "\n"

A file may end with a single-line comment, so the file can end before you see a newline. Tricky!

I recommend just using lineComment for this particular scenario.

mapChompedString : (String -> a -> b) -> Parser a -> Parser b

This works just like getChompedString but gives a bit more flexibility. For example, maybe you want to parse Gren doc comments and get (1) the full comment and (2) all of the names listed in the docs.

You could implement mapChompedString like this:

mapChompedString : (String -> a -> b) -> Parser a -> Parser String
mapChompedString func parser =
  succeed (\start value end src -> func (String.slice start end src) value)
    |= getOffset
    |= parser
    |= getOffset
    |= getSource


type alias DeadEnd =
{ row : Int, col : Int, problem : Problem }

A parser can run into situations where there is no way to make progress. When that happens, I record the row and col where you got stuck and the particular problem you ran into. That is a DeadEnd!

Note: I count rows and columns like a text editor. The beginning is row=1 and col=1. As I chomp characters, the col increments. When I reach a \n character, I increment the row and set col=1.

type Problem
= Expecting String
| ExpectingInt
| ExpectingHex
| ExpectingOctal
| ExpectingBinary
| ExpectingFloat
| ExpectingNumber
| ExpectingVariable
| ExpectingSymbol String
| ExpectingKeyword String
| ExpectingEnd
| UnexpectedChar
| Problem String
| BadRepeat

When you run into a DeadEnd, I record some information about why you got stuck. This data is useful for producing helpful error messages. This is how deadEndsToString works!

Note: If you feel limited by this type (i.e. having to represent custom problems as strings) I highly recommend switching to Parser.Advanced. It lets you define your own Problem type. It can also track "context" which can improve error messages a ton! This is how the Gren compiler produces relatively nice parse errors, and I am excited to see those techniques applied elsewhere!

deadEndsToString : Array DeadEnd -> String

Turn all the DeadEnd data into a string that is easier for people to read.

Note: This is just a baseline of quality. It cannot do anything with colors. It is not interactive. It just turns the raw data into strings. I really hope folks will check out the source code for some inspiration on how to turn errors into Html with nice colors and interaction! The Parser.Advanced module lets you work with context as well, which really unlocks another level of quality! The "context" technique is how the Gren compiler can say "I think I am parsing a list, so I was expecting a closing ] here." Telling users what the parser thinks is happening can be really helpful!


withIndent : Int -> Parser a -> Parser a

Some languages are indentation sensitive. Python cares about tabs. Gren cares about spaces sometimes. withIndent and getIndent allow you to manage "indentation state" yourself, however is necessary in your scenario.

getIndent : Parser Int

When someone said withIndent earlier, what number did they put in there?

  • getIndent results in 0, the default value
  • withIndent 4 getIndent results in 4

So you are just asking about things you said earlier. These numbers do not leak out of withIndent, so say we have:

succeed (\a b -> { a = a, b = b })
  |= withIndent 4 getIndent
  |= getIndent

Assuming there are no withIndent above this, you would get { a = 4, b = 0 } from this.


getPosition : Parser { row : Int, col : Int }

Code editors treat code like a grid, with rows and columns. The start is row=1 and col=1. As you chomp characters, the col increments. When you run into a \n character, the row increments and col goes back to 1.

In the Gren compiler, the start and end position of every expression is tracked like this:

type alias Located a =
  { start : { row: Int, col: Int }
  , value : a
  , end : { row: Int, col: Int }

located : Parser a -> Parser (Located a)
located parser =
  succeed (\start value end -> { start = start, value = value, end = end })
    |= getPosition
    |= parser
    |= getPosition

So if there is a problem during type inference, I use this saved position information to underline the exact problem!

Note: Tabs count as one character, so if you are parsing something like Python, I recommend sorting that out after parsing. So if I wanted the ^^^^ underline like in Gren, I would find the row in the source code and do something like this:

makeUnderline : String -> Int -> Int -> String
makeUnderline row minCol maxCol =
  String.toList row
    |> List.indexedMap (toUnderlineChar minCol maxCol)
    |> String.fromList

toUnderlineChar : Int -> Int -> Int -> Char -> Char
toUnderlineChar minCol maxCol col char =
  if minCol <= col && col <= maxCol then
  else if char == '\t' then
    ' '

So it would preserve any tabs from the source line. There are tons of other ways to do this though. The point is just that you handle the tabs after parsing but before anyone looks at the numbers in a context where tabs may equal 2, 4, or 8.

getRow : Parser Int

This is a more efficient version of map (\pos -> pos.row) getPosition. Maybe you just want to track the line number for some reason? This lets you do that.

See getPosition for an explanation of rows and columns.

getCol : Parser Int

This is a more efficient version of map (\pos -> pos.col) getPosition. This can be useful in combination with withIndent and getIndent, like this:

checkIndent : Parser {}
checkIndent =
  succeed (\indent column -> indent <= column)
    |= getIndent
    |= getCol
    |> andThen checkIndentHelp

checkIndentHelp : Bool -> Parser {}
checkIndentHelp isIndented =
  if isIndented then
    succeed {}
    problem "expecting more spaces"

So the checkIndent parser only succeeds when you are "deeper" than the current indent level. You could use this to parse Gren-style let expressions.

getOffset : Parser Int

Editors think of code as a grid, but behind the scenes it is just a flat array of UTF-16 characters. getOffset tells you your index in that flat array. So if you chomp "\n\n\n\n" you are on row 5, column 1, and offset 4.

Note: JavaScript uses a somewhat odd version of UTF-16 strings, so a single character may take two slots. So in JavaScript, 'abc'.length === 3 but 'πŸ™ˆπŸ™‰πŸ™Š'.length === 6. Try it out! And since Gren runs in JavaScript, the offset moves by those rules.

getSource : Parser String

Get the full string that is being parsed. You could use this to define getChompedString or mapChompedString if you wanted:

getChompedString : Parser a -> Parser String
getChompedString parser =
  succeed String.slice
    |= getOffset
    |. parser
    |= getOffset
    |= getSource